The greater the similarity, the closer the ages. During rock formation, especially lava, tuffs, pumice, etc. Therefore, whenever a stratigraphic sequence is observed during the excavation of a site, relative ages of the cultural levels can be worked out. Generally, each stratum is isolated in a separate chronological unit that incorporates artifacts. To obtain a date for a single pottery sample, it is necessary to perform a laboratory fractionation of the clay mineral used in the manufacture of the pottery and prepare nearly 75 sub-samples; some of these are heated to release the level of thermoluminescence, while others receive a radiation dose to measure their sensitivity to radiation. During the interglacial periods the climate changed from wet to dry and vice versa. All ceramic material contain certain amounts of radioactive impurities uranium, thorium, potassium. The city of Pompeii in Italy is a good example of the destruction caused by volcanic activity. It relies on a natural phenomenon that is the foundation of life on earth. The word varve in Swedish means annual layers of sediments deposited at the bottom of the lakes by the runoff from melting glacial ice. The basic principle of the method is that the longer a bone will be placed in soil, the more fluorine will be caught in and hence can suggest a relative date. The formation of rings is affected by drought and prosperous seasons. The longest sequence known goes back only 17, years. However, instead of the limitations, varve analysis can be used indirectly for archaeological dating. Description of different dating methods: The main disadvantage with the system is that, we require a sample showing at least 20 growth rings to make an objective estimation of its age.
In India the method is applied in dating Karewa sediments in Kashmir. Charred bones are better preserved and are therefore relatively more reliable. Cross Dating - Cross dating involves the comparison of artefacts found in different stratigraphic levels. On the other hand, during years with exceptionally large amounts of rain the tree will form much wider growth rings. Among all other artefacts it is found that pottery changes with time frequently and a sequence of pottery design can thus be worked out. Aitken and co- workers. The word varve in Swedish means annual layers of sediments deposited at the bottom of the lakes by the runoff from melting glacial ice. Fire places and kiln thus provide best samples for dating. Therefore the method is restricted to the areas where volcanic rocks rich in potassium are available. The bones acquired from a lower level show more fluorine in them whereas the bone remains coming from the upper level contains less fluorine. It subsequently evolved into the most powerful method of dating and Holocene artefacts and geologic events up to about 50, years. It determines the calendar years of tree-ring formation and the felling dates of trees, which helps to determine the age of wooden objects with a great precision. This method is based on the principle that the variation in tree growth from one year to another is influenced by the degree of precipitation, sunshine, temperature, soil type and all ambient conditions and that, consequently, reference patterns can be distinguished. Most of the trees in a give area show the same variability in the width of the growth rings because of the conditions they all endured. Likewise, it is found that in North America the arrival of man caused the extinction of mammals such as the mammoth, horse, camel and several species of bison. Electron Spin Resonance ESR method can be applied to different types of samples in various environments; its contribution to the elaboration of a chronostratigraphic frame is of a great importance for the understanding of the Homo erectus dispersals out of Africa and especially for the first settlements in Europe. Distinction between Relative and Absolute Dating: In particular, recent discoveries of human remains in Western Europe have been proposed to be sites of the earliest arrival of humans there, and have been dated to the Early Pleistocene by Electron Spin Resonance ESR using quartz and tooth enamel. This unique example comes from a sit known as Bori in Maharashtra, where it was found that a layer yielding flake tools is overlain by a layer of volcanic ash. If the ground up pottery is reheated, it emits light. This method can date the sample upto the time of cutting the tree, but not the date when it was actually brought into use. It may also be collected with the help of glass. Different pottery types which changes very frequently with time and hence occur for a very shorter period of time are better 'index fossil' or 'horizon marker' than others. The main disadvantage with the system is that, we require a sample showing at least 20 growth rings to make an objective estimation of its age. The second difficulty is that the radio active decay does not take place at a uniform rate but is a random process, and is therefore, governed by the laws of statistical probability. Limitation and Errors of C Dating: It is known that may minerals and natural glasses obsidian, tektites contain very small quantities of uranium.
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