This may help explain sex differences in athletic performance. All of these factors are affected by the environment an adolescent grows up in. It is the stage of life characterized by the appearance and development of secondary sex characteristics for example, a deeper voice and larger adam's apple in boys, and development of breasts and more curved and prominent hips in girls and a strong shift in hormonal balance towards an adult state. This process is different for females and males. As a result, adolescents experience a significant shift from the simple, concrete, and global self-descriptions typical of young children; as children, they defined themselves by physical traits whereas as adolescents, they define themselves based on their values, thoughts, and opinions. With a more user-friendly design, this resource offers comprehensive guidance. A child from a more privileged upbringing is exposed to more opportunities and better situations in general. Self-esteem is defined as one's thoughts and feelings about one's self-concept and identity. This allows the individual to think and reason in a wider perspective. Some boys may develop gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormones , tissue responsiveness or obesity. This therefore has caused various factors to become important during this development. Sex differences are apparent as males tend to develop "larger hearts and lungs, higher systolic blood pressure, a lower resting heart rate, a greater capacity for carrying oxygen to the blood, a greater power for neutralizing the chemical products of muscular exercise, higher blood hemoglobin and more red blood cells". Stanley Hall The formal study of adolescent psychology began with the publication of G. However, early puberty is not always positive for boys; early sexual maturation in boys can be accompanied by increased aggressiveness due to the surge of hormones that affect them.
The second is the information-processing perspective , which derives from the study of artificial intelligence and attempts to explain cognitive development in terms of the growth of specific components of the thinking process. Adolescents pay close attention and give more time and effort to their appearance as their body goes through changes. The ratio between muscle and fat among post-pubertal boys is around three to one, while for girls it is about five to four. When they fail to win friends' approval or couldn't find someone with whom to share common activities and common interests, in these cases, girls suffer from low self-esteem. Self-rated importance of spiritual health, both overall and within most questions and domains, declined as young people aged. Our primary measures of spiritual health consisted of eight questions in four domains perceived importance of connections to: The first facial hair to appear tends to grow at the corners of the upper lip, typically between 14 and 17 years of age. The recognition of inconsistent content in the self-concept is a common source of distress in these years see Cognitive dissonance ,  but this distress may benefit adolescents by encouraging structural development. In contrast, though both sexes experience an increase in body fat, the increase is much more significant for girls. The male and female gonads are subsequently activated, which puts them into a state of rapid growth and development; the triggered gonads now commence the mass production of the necessary chemicals. While coming out can also foster better psychological adjustment, the risks associated are real. The biggest changes in the folds of the brain during this time occur in the parts of the cortex that process cognitive and emotional information. Abstract The spiritual health of adolescents is a topic of emerging contemporary importance. As a result, adolescents experience a significant shift from the simple, concrete, and global self-descriptions typical of young children; as children, they defined themselves by physical traits whereas as adolescents, they define themselves based on their values, thoughts, and opinions. This understanding of youth was based on two then new ways of understanding human behavior: The dual systems model proposes a maturational imbalance between development of the socioemotional system and cognitive control systems in the brain that contribute to impulsivity and other behaviors characteristic of adolescence. Between the ages of 10 and 25, the brain undergoes changes that have important implications for behavior see Cognitive development below. Concludes each chapter with a summary of the principle points covered, with tables, pictures and diagrams to clarify and enhance the presentation. It often involves monitoring one's own cognitive activity during the thinking process. Several serotonin receptors have their gene expression change dramatically during adolescence, particularly in the human frontal and prefrontal cortex. The idea of linked lives states that one's development is shaped by the interconnected network of relationships of which one is a part; and the principle of human agency asserts that one's life course is constructed via the choices and actions of an individual within the context of their historical period and social network. The principle of the importance of timing in one's life refers to the different impact that life events have on development based on when in one's life they occur. Changes in the brain The human brain is not fully developed by the time a person reaches puberty. This provides the ability to plan ahead, see the future consequences of an action and to provide alternative explanations of events. Focuses on the clinical aspects of function and dysfunction, rather than arranging subjects according to categorical labels. Risktaking may also have reproductive advantages: These improvements occur in five areas during adolescence:
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